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Between 60 and 80 percent of laryngeal papillomatosis cases occur in children, usually before the age of three. The prevalence of speech sound disorders in young children is 8 to 9 percent. By the first grade, roughly 5 percent of children have noticeable speech disorders; the majority of these speech disorders have no known cause. By the time they are six months old, infants usually babble or produce repetitive syllables such as "ba, ba, ba" or "da, da, da. By the end of their first year, most children have mastered the ability to say a few simple words.

By 18 months of age, most children can say 8 to 10 words. By age 2, most put words together in crude sentences such as "more milk. It is estimated that more than 3 million Americans stutter. Stuttering can affect individuals of all ages, but occurs most frequently in young children between the ages of 2 and 6. Boys are 3 times more likely than girls to stutter. Most children, however, outgrow their stuttering, and it is estimated that fewer than 1 percent of adults stutter.

The Aging and Dementia Gap Analysis focuses on issues and techniques for improving inclusion and quality of life for people with dementia using ICT. Our strategy includes a key ambition to develop ICT techniques that will work better for people affected by dementia; and to define, develop and improve dementia and aging-friendly ICT. Many people are able to age in good health and remain active participants in society throughout their lives. Others experience physical and cognitive limitations, and may lose the ability to live independently.

Although dementia mainly affects older people, it is not a normal part of aging. The most elder-rich period of human history is upon us. How we regard and make use of this windfall of elders will define the world in which we live. There is a good phrase to remember regarding people with dementia: "If you've met one person with dementia, you've met one person with dementia". This has been largely attributed to the late Tom Kitwood, although no direct source has been found. From Miriam Webster's Dictionary, the definition of aging is: Gradual change in an organism that leads to increased risk of weakness, disease, and death.

It takes place in a cell, an organ, or the total organism over the entire adult-life span of any living thing. There is a decline in biological functions and inability to adapt to metabolic stress. Changes in organs include the replacement of functional cardiovascular cells with fibrous tissue.

Overall effects of aging include reduced immunity; loss of muscle strength; decline in memory and other aspects of cognition; and loss of hair color and elasticity in the skin. In women, the process accelerates after menopause. Aging definition: an age-dependent or age-progressive decline in intrinsic physiological function, leading to an increase in age-specific mortality rate i. So, the aging process can be defined as a progressive deterioration of physiological function, an intrinsic age-related process of loss of viability, and an increase in vulnerability.

Dementia is defined as a severe loss of cognitive abilities that disrupts daily life. Symptoms include memory loss; mood changes; visual perception; focus challenges; and problems with communicating, decision making, and reasoning. Dementia is not a normal part of growing old. It is caused by diseases of the brain, the most common being Alzheimer's. Dementia is progressive, which means the symptoms will gradually get worse. In short, Alzheimer's is a brain disease that causes a slow decline in memory, thinking and reasoning skills.

These resources are relevant to this section. For our next draft, components of these articles will be incorporated into this section where applicable. Overview : The parts of the brain and cognitive functions affected depend upon the type of dementia. Alzheimer's: Specific Causes are being researched, but scientists note a buildup of two abnormal proteins amyloid and tau , which damage nerve cells in the brain.

The proteins form different types of clumps, plaques or tangles, which interfere with how brain cells work and communicate with each other. Plaques are usually first seen in the area of the brain that makes new memories the hippocampus of the medial temporal lobe , but then moves to other parts of the brain as the disease progresses. Whenever the temporal part of the brain becomes diseased, people with dementia have difficulty making sense of sounds.

They may lose the ability to follow conversations or become abnormally sensitive to sound. People can also become uncertain about the location of sounds. Social situations and music may be more difficult to enjoy. In Posterior Cortical Atrophy, a rare form of Alzheimer's, the parietal and occipital lobes of the brain are affected by the same abnormal proteins found in Alzheimer's. This causes difficulty in seeing where and what things are. In fronto-temporal dementia, the temporal lobe is affected, causing difficulty with speech and language. People with Alzheimer's disease have a buildup of abnormal proteins in the hippocampus, which causes it to malfunction.

This affects the ability to recognize places. They may become disoriented. In Alzheimer's disease, the buildup of abnormal proteins in the Hippocampus affects the ability to store new memories. When the temporal lobe is affected by fronto-temporal dementia, it causes difficulty in recollection of factual information.

Fronto-temporal dementia is thought to be caused by proteins building up in the frontal lobe of the brain. People often experience changes in personality and behave inappropriately. In corticobasal degeneration, the cortex and basal ganglia become damaged, which is currently thought to occur due to the overproduction of the tau protein.

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This causes movement to be stiff or jerky, and affects one or more limbs. Dementia with Lewy bodies affects the cerebrum where small round lumps of proteins build up, and can cause fluctuations of consciousness, as well as hallucinations, delusions firmly held beliefs in things that are not real , and false ideas such as paranoia.

Overview : The parts of the brain affected and the specific symptoms depend upon the type of dementia. Scenario A is an elderly person who has limited familiarity with computer devices desktop, tablets, mobile. A would like to send an email to a family member. A needs to be able to find the mail program easily, interact with the user interface to compose and send an email, know that it has been sent, and then know if the email has been replied to. A starts by turning on the computer. Identify and press the power button to turn the computer on. This may be difficult for a number of reasons.

Firstly, people may find it hard to identify the power button, as they may have forgotten what it looks like. Secondly, some power buttons can be quite small, which may be difficult for elderly people to press, especially those who have arthritis or a tremor in their hands. This requires people to be able to identify the correct icon for their email application. Although there is a certain amount of intuitiveness surrounding the design of icons, sometimes, for the elderly, this can still be a problem.

In this case, typing in the name of the email application if that can be remembered into the search bar on the start-up menu may help. The majority of buttons with an email application are labeled. Therefore, people simply must read the icon labels until they find the correct one for 'new email'. If people are unable to remember the email address of the recipient, they can type the address in the box labeled "To". If people must access their address book to find the email address, they must select the address book or contacts list icon, and then type in the name of the person they wish to email.

Their address should then come up. All of the above requires recognition and retrieval of information from long term memory, which could be a problem for those with memory problems. Type a title for email into the subject box. This field is not mandatory. Therefore, if people are unable to enter any text in this field, the actual sending of the email will not be affected. However, most applications will show a warning message, such as "do you wish to send this email without a subject".

People will still be enable to press "send" successfully. This should be fairly simple, provided people can remember what they wished to say in their email. In the majority of email applications, this step happens automatically after an email has been sent. By selecting the third button from the left, in the top right-hand corner of the email application, people are able to minimize their emails.

However, if people cannot remember what the "minimize" button looks like, or where it is located, this could be a problem for them. The challenges associated with this step will be the same as the challenges associated with step 2. Scenario B is a gentleman in his early 50s who has recently been diagnosed with fronto-temporal dementia early onset. He is trying to buy a train ticket online for a return journey the following day. At any point during this process, he may forget what he is doing, which could result in either no ticket being purchased or, alternatively, buying the wrong ticket.

For example, he may wish to travel tomorrow, but purchase a ticket for the following week. To extend this further, people may have entirely forgotten what the computer is for, or where to find it. In this instance, the task becomes impossible until their memory returns. Secondly, some power buttons can be quite small. This may be difficult for those with reduced dexterity, particularly for those who are older, and may have arthritis or a tremor.

Navigate home screen with mouse, identify web-browser icon, and select to open. Typical memory problems. If the icon is not labeled, this could be difficult if people forget what the icon to buy tickets looks like. However, most icons for booking train tickets are clearly labeled. Therefore, the only issues for people should be recognizing the correct label, and remembering what they are doing. Given that people start from their home address, it can be hoped their nearest train station is securely stored in their long term memory, and can be remembered.

With regards to the destination, they are likely to have written this down when arranging the outing, which should help them remember the destination. Choosing appropriate times for travel may be difficult for people with dementia. However, most train-ticket-booking websites do not allow booking a return journey prior to an outbound journey, so at least this potential problem is guarded against.

In this instance, only 1 person is traveling. However, when more than 1 person is traveling, there is a higher possibility of the wrong number of tickets being purchased. People are likely to have a rail card for seniors or persons with disabilities. Therefore, they must remember to apply their rail-card discount to the journey in order to get a discount. This step involves selecting which type of ticket to purchase. Although all options are laid out in a table, sometimes it can be difficult to work out exactly which ticket to buy, and how much it costs.

Tick box to reserve seat and, if so, select seating preferences. This is optional. Therefore, if people do not understand it, it is perfectly fine for them to ignore this step. Tick box to either: collect tickets from self-service ticket machine and select station; or have tickets sent by post. Self-service ticket machines tend to be fairly complicated. Therefore, as long as there is enough time 7 days prior to start of journey , it is advisable to have the tickets sent by post.

If people have not used this particular ticket-booking site, they must enter all their personal details. Otherwise, they just need to remember their email address and password. On the payment card, there is a symbol to indicate which type of card it is. This information must be entered by way of ticking the correct box. These are written on the payment card so there is no issue with memory impairment here.

However, as with each step throughout this process, if people forget what they are trying to achieve at any point, they are unlikely to be successful in this task. Scenario C is a woman with dementia in her early 70s. She finds it easier to do her supermarket shopping online because she often gets confused in the shop, and forgets what she wants to buy. Firstly, people may find it hard to identify the power button as they may have forgotten what it looks like.

Typing in the first few letters of the web address in the search bar should populate with previous history. However, if it is the first time, people may not understand how the automatic population of text works. A turns on the computer. Trouble remembering the name or email address for the person to send note to; confusion with pre-populating and word prediction; interaction with the Contacts feature; understand or ignore CC and BCC fields solution: keep out ; how to fix a wrongly-entered email address.

Assumptions: People know they can do this from a remote device; they have the screen in front of them; it is already turned on. Scenario B is an elderly person with early dementia. A daughter has demonstrated how to use a web-enabled mobile application to change the temperature of the house.

Winter has arrived. B would like to turn the heat up to keep the house warm enough. B needs help recalling how to access the temperature program, the work flow to change the temperature, and understand the elements of the user interface. They also should minimize errors; and provide on-screen help and high recover-ability. Miesenberger, Fels, Archambault, Et. Springer pages Paper: Tablets in the rehabilitation of memory impairment, K Dobsz et. Miesenberger, Fels, Archambault, et.

Paper: Never Too old to use a tablets, L. Muskens et. Springer part 2 page Paper: Supporting senior citizens in using tablet computers, Dahn et. Overview: This section maps higher-level challenges to existing WCAG 2 Techniques so that we can see where there are clear gaps that we will need to provide techniques for. Alzheimer's Society undertook the largest ever survey carried out on this subject; and analyzed responses from carers and 47 people with dementia; as well as focus groups and interviews with professionals.

A literature review of papers that have explored digital-technology. Only papers that have employed target user input directly, or from other works, have been included. Twenty four were analyzed. Improvements in reporting of studies are recommended. A case is made for considering the population of people with dementia as so heterogeneous that one design does not suit all.

This is illustrated through some case-study reports from people with dementia. Furthermore, it is proposed that, by grouping people into functionally-similar sub-groups, interfaces may be designed for these groups that will collectively establish a sequence of 'stepping stone' interfaces that better address appropriate functioning and maintain self-efficacy. Fundamentally, people living with dementia are unique individuals with unique specific needs. A priori, in life experiences, interests, willingness to learn, environmental factors, and co-morbidities, they are as varied as any of their age peers.

One thing they do not share with those peers is the degenerative consequences of the specific dementia they have. The progression of their disease also follows a unique time line, even if the general symptoms and thus perhaps functional ability change in a fairly predictable order. In the face of these statements, it might be inferred that it is most likely people with dementia require individual but adaptive to progression of the disease , bespoke solutions for sustained independent living.

Given the breadth of individuality in people, the effects of dementias, and indeed their progression, it is impossible to view them as a single, homogeneous population in terms of specifying a single user interface. In consequence, rather than simply designing for all people living with dementia, it is suggested that design for populations at stages of functional ability be investigated. Methods that set out to identify shared and bespoke requirements are needed to systematically establish any generalization. Currently, studies on design of digital AT, and indeed other ICT for people living with dementia, need to report much-more detail on: describing their participants; details of user interface features that worked well; and how much and what form carers' help took.

More attention also needs to compare strategies and features that work to identify those that are best; or at least best for specific functional ability or tasks. The design of user interfaces for people with dementia does not appear, from the literature, to take into account the concomitant language and communication deficits when choosing the language used in the interfaces. A systematic approach was used to search databases for studies relating to language and communication in the four most-common forms of dementia Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, fronto-temporal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies.

Studies identified were used as a basis for the commentary in this paper. Communication deficits are common in dementia. From the earliest stages of the disease, the person with dementia's capacity for communication declines as difficulties emerge with all aspects of language and functional communication. These deficits have implications for the successful interaction with assistive digital technology designed to improve the quality of life of people with dementia. More consideration should be given at the design stages to the potential impact of communication difficulties on interaction with technology.

It is important to note that the authors have not been able to find, to date, any conclusions about what impact these impairments may have on user interface design. The results of this review have highlighted areas of strength reading and areas of difficulty spoken-language output and understanding some aspects of spoken and written language in the communication abilities of people living with dementia.

Those who design interfaces for this client group should consider the impact that their language and communication choices might have on end-users with dementia. In particular, the following general guidelines should be taken into account, in order to maximize the accessibility of the language of interfaces for people with dementia. Down syndrome also known as Trisomy 21 , is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome It is typically associated with physical-growth delays, characteristic facial features , and mild to moderate intellectual disability.

Education and proper care has been shown to improve quality of life. Some children with Down syndrome are educated in typical-school classes, while others require more-specialized education. Some individuals with Down syndrome graduate from high school, and a few attend post-secondary education. Down syndrome is best known for its effect on the development of literacy and language-related skills. Down syndrome is widely recognized as being a specific learning disability of neurological origin, which does not imply low intelligence or poor educational potential, and which is independent of race and social background.

Improvements in medical interventions for people with Down syndrome have led to a substantial increase in their life longevity. Diagnosis and treatment of neurological complications are important in maintaining optimal cognitive functioning. The cognitive phenotype in Down syndrome is characterized by impairments in morphosyntax, verbal short-term memory, and explicit long-term memory.

Seizures are associated with cognitive decline. They seem to cause additional decline in cognitive functioning, particularly in people with Down syndrome and comorbid disorders, such as autism. Vision and hearing disorders, as well as hypothyroidism, can have a negative impact onn cognitive functioning in people with Down syndrome. Dementia that resembles Alzheimer's disease is common in adults with Down syndrome. Early-onset dementia in adults with Down syndrome does not seem to be associated with atherosclerotic complications.

People with Down syndrome often struggle with short-term auditory memory.

Most people use memory to process, hold, understand, and assimilate spoken language. Auditory memory relates directly to the speed with which words can be articulated, and influences the speed at which people learn new words and learn to read. Theories about memory suggest words that are heard are received and stored in working memory to make sense of them. They are then transferred to a more long-term store. However, words are only retained in the working memory for two seconds unless consciously kept there by silently repeating them to oneself, called rehearsing. The amount of information that can be retained within the two-second span is called the auditory digit span.

Yes, many people with Down syndrome have difficulties in this area. Generally, long-term memory is not impaired. Neither is the visual memory, which is often far stronger. The cognitive profile observed in Down syndrome is typically uneven, with stronger visual than verbal skills; receptive vocabulary stronger than expressive language and grammatical skills; and often strengths in reading abilities.

There is considerable variation across the population of people with Down syndrome. Many studies have included typically-developing children matched for chronological age, for non-verbal mental age, or on a measure of language or reading ability. Individuals with Down syndrome have also been compared to individuals with learning difficulties of an unknown origin, and to individuals who have learning difficulties of a different aetiology e. The particular measures of language, reading, or non-verbal ability, used for matching, can affect the conclusion drawn.

There are also behavioral aspects of the Down syndrome phenotype other than non-verbal ability and language ability such as motivational style , which may affect performance on tasks, including attainment tests, and need to be taken into account. In terms of education, there is strong evidence to suggest that the relatively-recent policy of educating children with Down syndrome in mainstream schools has had a positive effect on language skills and academic attainments. This means that the findings of studies conducted a number of years ago need to be interpreted with caution. Intellectual and cognitive impairment, and problems with thinking and learning, usually range from mild to moderate.

Common symptoms are:. People with Down syndrome do not tend to automatize skills very well. A high degree of mental effort is required to carry out tasks that other individuals generally do not feel requires effort. It must be emphasized that individuals vary greatly in their Specific Learning Difficulties profile. Key variables are the severity of the difficulties; the ability of individuals to identify and understand their difficulties; and successfully develop and implement coping strategies. By adulthood, many people with Specific Learning Difficulties are able to compensate through technology, reliance on others, and an array of self-help mechanisms, the operation of which requires sustained effort and energy.

People are particularly susceptible to stress compared with the typical population , resulting in an increase of their impairments. Although she can read at a 3rd grade level, reading is slow and difficult. Books geared towards a younger audience with a lot of pictures help. Plus, she can comprehend and remember stories read by others. Test taking is very stressful, It helps when the teacher can help her take the test orally. She is strong on the computer, especially when interested in the topics. She can surf the Web and do research, but needs to be reminded to stay on task and not get distracted by other sites and advertisements.

She does not use assistive technology, but has in the past to improve her reading skills. The teacher aide has to remind her to stay on task during exercises. She can do simple research projects, but only if supported with reminders and visual ques. Aim to ensure that written material takes into account the visual stress experienced by some people with Down syndrome, and facilitates ease of reading. Adopting best practice for readers with Down syndrome has the advantage of making documents easier on the eye for everyone.

Remember people with Down syndrome can be easily distracted and confused. The estimated incidence of Down syndrome is between 1 in 1, to 1 in 1, live births worldwide. Each year, approximately 3, to 5, children are born with this chromosome disorder. It is believed there are about , families in the United States of America who are affected by Down syndrome.

Sixty to 80 percent of children with Down syndrome have hearing deficits. Forty to 45 percent of children with Down syndrome have congenital heart disease. Intestinal abnormalities also occur at a higher frequency in children with Down syndrome. Children with Down syndrome often have more eye problems than other children who do not have this chromosome disorder. Another concern relates to nutritional aspects. Some children with Down syndrome, in particular those with severe heart disease, often fail to thrive in infancy. On the other hand, obesity is often noted during adolescence and early adulthood.

These conditions can be prevented by providing appropriate-nutritional counseling and anticipatory-dietary guidance. Thyroid dysfunctions are more common in children with Down syndrome than in other children. Skeletal problems have also been noted at a higher frequency in children with Down syndrome. Other important medical aspects in Down syndrome, including immunologic concerns, leukemia, Alzheimer disease, seizure disorders, sleep apnea, and skin disorders, may require the attention of specialists in their respective fields.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting both children and adults. For a diagnosis of ADHD, symptoms must frequently occur in more than one environment e. The symptoms should also cause social, educational, or work-related issues American Psychiatric Association, The symptoms presented vary in type and intensity between individuals with ADHD, and may vary in type and intensity with time for a given individual. Studies have suggested that children with ADHD exhibit multiple deficits in working memory, related to spatial storage and spatial executive functioning, which are independent of any language-learning disorders presented by the same individual Martinussen, et al.

It has also been suggested that dysfunctional, neurological, parallel-processing pathways are a potential partial explanation of executive-dysfunction association with ADHD, but further research on cognition from a neurophysiological and developmental point of view are required to confirm this Castellanos, et al. It is unclear if any of these context-dependent cognitive effects are unique to ADHD. However, evidence suggests they are not explained by co-occurring problems and, in most instances, are more-clearly associated with ADHD the issue being more pronounced than with other disorders exhibiting the same issues Willcutt, et al.

Comorbidity with learning disabilities is common in people with ADHD. This highly-variable overlap has been previously attributed to inconsistencies in the definition of learning disabilities, and a general over identification of learning disabilities Semrud-Clikeman, et. The most commonly used diagnosis of ADHD follows the guidelines outlined by the American Psychiatric Association , and will be followed here. Three presentations formerly called subtypes of ADHD are recognized:.

To be diagnosed with ADHD using the above symptoms, a child should exhibit at least 6 of the symptoms. A late-teen or an adult should exhibit at least 5. Presentations are not fixed. They can change throughout the lifetime of a person with ADHD, as can the severity of the individual symptoms. Due to the high incidence of comorbidity with learning disabilities, it is difficult to identify challenges that are unique to people with ADHD.

As noted above, the number and the severity of the symptoms associated with a particular presentation of ADHD can vary with time Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a. A result of this is that the challenges for a person with ADHD can also vary in type and intensity as the individual ages. In general terms, the challenges associated with ADHD, highlighted by Nigg , include the following. She is 19 years old, with low self-esteem, and is easily discouraged.

Her attention to detail is poor, and her attention span is low. She has a tendency to forget things quickly, and to give up in frustration. She has both younger and older siblings who do not present with ADHD. She does not receive medication. She is trying to buy a book using an online retailer, for her father, as a birthday present.

Paula has never used an online retailer before. She has decided that a book on Indian Cooking would be an appropriate gift. Her father does not read books in electronic format. Some care must be taken when searching for a retailer. Depending upon the wording, the search may return a list of retailers of online books, rather than an online store that sells books. This can be mitigated by searching for a well-known retailer. Auto suggestion returns meaningful results, and is relatively forgiving of typing errors.

This helps mitigate any exhibited lack of attention to detail. The home page of a typical retail site tends to promote multiple products. This adds a significant degree of distraction, and can result in the loss of focus on the task at hand. If the retailer sells multiple types of products, this challenge will increase markedly. There is little that can be done about this because the distracting information is an intrinsic part of the site design, and cannot be disabled by add-blocking settings. The search features, although towards the top of the screen, are not particularly prominent.

Not being able to find them quickly may leave Paula frustrated; and may increase the likelihood of her giving up and trying a different vendor. As most vendors use a similar homepage layout, she may eventually abandon the attempt completely. The search engines are relatively robust with regard to typing errors.

The resulting lists, although extensive, typically do not contain suggestions for other items not directly related to the search. Any advertising, if present, is discrete. Most books are available in multiple formats hardcover, paperback, or e-formats. Care must be taken in ensuring that the correct format is chosen. The type of format selected is not always obvious. When reviewing a book, there are often suggestions of similar books prominently presented and situated before customer reviews.

This may cause distraction, and loss of focus, leading to navigation away from the page. The call to action is standard across retail sites. The buy button is clearly displayed, and is positioned within the logical flow of the page. It will often maintain a fixed position if the page has been scrolled through. This step requires an attention to detail because e-mail addresses are typically required, and passwords created. Security requirements for passwords are not clearly explained.

Often, errors are not captured until all of the information is submitted. This may present a significant challenge due to the required attention to detail, and to frustration that may result from poorly-managed error capture and correction. Although the purchasing call to action is typically prominently positioned, the page itself often contains significant distractions in the form of suggestions for additional purchases. This may lead to loss of focus. This is part of the intrinsic design of the site. Little can be done to mitigate it. The options to add gift wrapping and individual messages may not be prominently displayed.

The options may not be available later in the purchasing cycle. These options can easily be overlooked. Any error checking associated with the individual message is controlled by the browser. This step may prove challenging because accuracy and attention to detail are required. Error capture and correction are minimal due to the nature of the information being captured. As the address details may be used to pre-populate a billing address at a later stage, errors at this stage may have additional impact.

This step presents challenges because the information must be entered accurately. The error handling may not be immediate, and may return somewhat cryptic responses. This may cause Paula to give up at this point. The successful completion of the order relies on the information provided at steps 8 and 9.

While there is significant control at stage 9, if the details are incorrect, the payment will not be processed. Scenario B: "Ian" is He lives alone. Despite his outward appearance, social exclusion as a child has led to Ian having low self-esteem. Ian has a strong grasp of technology. He is not afraid of trying out new things. Ian is planning a holiday in Ireland, where he has never visited. He wishes to book a return-train journey from Dublin to Galway. Search engines are robust with respect to spelling and semi-ambiguous search terms. The highly-ranked, returned results are relevant.

However, some high-ranking results attempt to plan routes, and require local geographic knowledge, which may result in some confusion. The sites returned are clearly labeled. The layout is clear and free of distractions. It is confusing to use. It requires the user to know which Dublin stations service Galway.

The page contains a great deal of information that is not relevant to the task at hand. The function of the site is not clearly labeled. The information returned from a search is overwhelming. This could easily lead to loss of focus and confusion. The information on the home page is relevant to finding and booking train journeys. The navigation features are clear and typical of other websites.

The form fields used in finding train times and booking tickets are prominently displayed. Any additional offers and information, which are not directly relevant, are mainly located in a position that does not detract from the primary information. All property, whether real, personal or mixed, received by NFA shall be held by NFA or disposed of by it on such terms and conditions not inconsistent with the Articles as the Board shall determine. Unless otherwise specified by the terms of a particular gift, bequest, devise, grant or other instrument, NFA funds may be invested, from time to time, in such manner as the Board may deem advantageous without regard to restrictions applicable to trustees or trust funds.

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Any current or former Member or Associate who fails to prevail in a lawsuit or any other type of legal proceeding instituted in a court of law or otherwise against NFA or any of its officers, directors, committee members, volunteers, arbitrators, employees or agents shall pay to NFA any and all reasonable expenses and disbursements, including reasonable attorney's fees, incurred by NFA to defend such lawsuit or proceeding. This seal may be used by causing it, or a facsimile or equivalent thereof, to be impressed, affixed or reproduced.

All NFA moneys and equivalents not otherwise employed shall be deposited from time to time to the credit of NFA in such financial institutions as may be designated by the Board. All checks, drafts or other orders for the payment of money, and all notes or other evidences of indebtedness issued in the name of NFA, shall be signed by such person or persons and in such manner as the Board shall determine from time to time by resolution.

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The fiscal year of NFA shall begin on the first day of July and end on the last day of June in each year. No Bylaw may be adopted, amended or repealed by the Board except as specified in a notice sent to each Director either in writing or by electronic transmission at least two weeks prior to the meeting at which the Board considers the same: Provided, however, that such prior notice is not required in an emergency as defined by Bylaw , or where a two-thirds majority of all Directors present and voting approves.

Except as provided in this Bylaw, the terms used in these Bylaws shall have the same meaning as in the Articles. Provided, however , that the term does not include any security that is not a security futures product, any contract of sale that results in actual delivery within two days, or any contract of sale that creates an enforceable obligation to deliver between a seller and buyer that have the ability to deliver and accept delivery, respectively, in connection with their line of business, unless the transaction involves a futures contract or an option.

NFA staff may, with the approval of the Executive Committee, enter into one or more agreements with one or more designated contract markets to provide regulatory services to NFA to assist NFA in discharging its obligations under Sections 15A k and 19 g of the Securities Exchange Act of Any action taken by a designated contract market, or its employees or authorized agents, acting on behalf of NFA pursuant to a regulatory services agreement shall be deemed to be an action taken by NFA; provided, however, that nothing in this provision shall affect the oversight of the designated contract market by the Commission.

Notwithstanding the fact that NFA may enter into one or more regulatory services agreements regarding security futures, NFA shall retain ultimate legal responsibility for, and control of, its self-regulatory responsibilities under the Securities Exchange Act of , and any such regulatory services agreement shall so provide. No Member or Associate shall be charged with an offense under these Rules if the specific conduct alleged to constitute the offense is governed or otherwise regulated by the requirements of a contract market and such Member or Associate is subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the contract market for such conduct.

No Member or Associate shall share, directly or indirectly, in the profits or losses accruing from commodity interest trading in any account of a customer carried by the Member, or another Member, unless the customer's prior written authorization is therefore obtained. Members and Associates shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of their commodity futures business and swaps business.

No person who has been expelled or suspended or is subject to a similar sanction by NFA in a proceeding brought pursuant to Part 3 of NFA's Compliance Rules that temporarily or permanently prohibits the person from NFA membership or affiliation in any capacity with an NFA Member shall hold himself out as a Member in good standing of NFA, or as affiliated with a Member, as the case may be, during the period the sanction is in effect. Effective date of amendments: January 28, ; August 21, ; December 9, ; December 17, ; and July 9, No such Member shall designate a person as a security futures principal unless:.

No Member or Associate shall exercise discretion over a customer's commodity futures account unless the customer or account controller has authorized the Member or Associate, in writing by power of attorney or other instrument to exercise such discretion. No Member or Associate shall exercise discretion with regard to foreign futures or foreign options transactions on behalf of a foreign futures or foreign options customer unless the customer or account controller has specifically authorized the Member or Associate, in writing, to exercise discretion with regard to foreign futures or foreign options transactions.

The Member or Associate does not need written authorization to exercise discretion with regard to time and price only. Each Member must maintain records which clearly identify which of the Member's accounts are accounts over which the Member or any Associate thereof has discretionary authority. Each futures trade initiated in an account that a Member or Associate has written authorization to trade shall be presumed to have been made pursuant to that trading authorization unless otherwise indicated, in writing, at the time the trade was placed. Each Member initiating such trades other than a Member who employs only one individual having discretionary authority if that individual is also the only principal who supervises futures activity must adopt and enforce written procedures:.

Discretionary trading activity must be regularly reviewed, and a written record of the review must be made, as required above. No Member FCM or IB shall allow an Associate to exercise discretion over a customer's commodity futures account unless that Associate has been continuously registered under the Act for a minimum of two years and has worked in such registered capacity for that period of time.

This requirement shall not apply to any individual registered as a CTA. This requirement may, in NFA's discretion, be waived upon a showing that the Associate has equivalent experience. The decision of the panel shall be final and shall be based upon the written submissions and the views of the Compliance Director.

The panel shall communicate its decision to the Compliance Director or a person designated by the Compliance Director, who shall then inform the Member seeking the waiver. An Associate who has been determined to have equivalent experience pursuant to the rules of any contract market Member of NFA having a similar minimum experience requirement shall be deemed to have satisfied the requirement of this Rule.

The decision of the panel shall be final and shall be based upon the written submissions of the Member and the views of the Compliance Department. No FCM or IB shall accept an order from a third party, not an Associate of the FCM or IB, without first obtaining a copy of the account controller's written trading authorization or a written acknowledgment from the customer that such authorization has been given. The provisions of sections b , c and d of this Rule shall not apply when the individual who owns the account and the individual exercising discretion are members of the same family a spouse, parent, child, grandparent, grandchild, brother, sister, aunt, uncle, nephew, niece or in-law.

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Each Associate who has supervisory duties shall diligently exercise such duties in the conduct of that Associate's commodity futures activities on behalf of the Member. This requirement may, in NFA's discretion, be waived upon a showing by the Member that the Member's current supervisory procedures provide effective supervision over its employees and agents.

Within 30 days after a Member submits a waiver request, the Compliance Director will submit a written response to the panel. The decision of the panel shall be final and shall be based upon the written submissions of the Member and of the Compliance Director. The decision of the panel shall be final and shall be based upon the written submissions of the Member and of the Compliance Department.

That anti-money laundering program shall, at a minimum,. The break-even analysis must be presented in the manner prescribed by NFA's Board of Directors and must be accurate as of the date of the Disclosure Document. Any Member or Associate who violates or fails to comply with any NFA requirement shall be subject to appropriate Member or Associate Responsibility Action or disciplinary action, or both, in accordance with these rules.

Effective date of amendments: August 1, and August 21, ]. No Member or Associate shall represent or imply in any manner whatsoever that such Member or Associate has been sponsored, recommended or approved, or that such Member's or Associate's abilities have in any respect been passed upon, by NFA or any federal or state regulatory body: Provided, however, that this Rule shall not prohibit a Member from stating the fact of membership, or an Associate from stating the fact of registration as an Associate if the effect of NFA membership or registration as an Associate is not misrepresented, or from discussing or explaining the functions and purposes of NFA.

Effective date of Amendments: January 1, ; September 9, ; and October 18, Within three business days of the day such confirmation is due, or within such further time as may be necessary in the exercise of due diligence, and provided that the receiving Member agrees to accept the account, the carrying Member shall effect the transfer of the balances and positions to the receiving Member. If a Member or Associate has either less than one year of experience in directing customer accounts or trading proprietary accounts, then the disclaimer must also contain the following statement:.

If a Member or Associate has less than one year of experience allocating assets among particular trading advisors, then the disclaimer must also contain the following statement:. Statements of opinion included in promotional material must be clearly identifiable as such and must have a reasonable basis in fact.

Every Member shall adopt and enforce written procedures to supervise its Associates and employees for compliance with this Rule. Prior to its first use, all promotional material shall be reviewed and approved, in writing, by an officer, general partner, sole proprietor, branch office manager or other supervisory employee other than the individual who prepared such material unless such material was prepared by the only individual qualified to review and approve such material.

If the Member is registered as a broker-dealer under Section 15 b 11 of the Exchange Act and the promotional material specifically refers to security futures products, the individual reviewing and approving the promotional material must be a designated security futures principal. Copies of all promotional material along with a record of the review and approval required under paragraph e of this Rule and supporting materials for any results described under paragraphs b 5 - 6 or c of this Rule must be maintained by each Member and be available for examination for the periods specified in CFTC Regulation 1.

Each Member who uses promotional material of the types described in paragraph b 5 - 6 or c of this Rule shall demonstrate the basis for any reported results to NFA upon request. The Compliance Director may require any Member for any specified period to file copies of all promotional material with NFA promptly after its first use. In addition to the other requirements of this Rule, Members registered as broker-dealers under Section 15 b 11 of the Exchange Act and their Associates shall not use any promotional material that specifically refers to security futures products unless the promotional material:.

This requirement does not apply to any promotional material in which the only reference to security futures products is contained in a listing of the Member's services. Effective date of amendments: January 1, ; August 21, December 10, ; December 17, ; January 3, ; and September 19, A Member registered as a broker or dealer under Section 15 b 11 of the Exchange Act shall provide a copy of the disclosure statement for security futures products at or before the time the Member approves the account to trade security futures products. For an active customer who is an individual, the FCM Member carrying the customer account shall contact the customer, at least annually, to verify that the information obtained from that customer under Section c of this Rule remains materially accurate, and provide the customer with an opportunity to correct and complete the information.

Whenever the customer notifies the FCM Member carrying the customer's account of any material changes to the information, a determination must be made as to whether additional risk disclosure is required to be provided to the customer based on the changed information. The Member or Associate who currently solicits and communicates with the customer is responsible for determining if additional risk disclosure is required to be provided based on the changed information.

In some cases, this may be the Member introducing or controlling the account; in other cases, it may be the carrying FCM. For all other customers, the customer's net worth or net assets and current estimated annual income, or where not available, the previous year's annual income;. In addition, Members that are not also members of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority and their Associates must obtain the following information from each customer who is an individual if the customer trades security futures products:. If a customer declines to provide the information set forth in Section c of this Rule, the Member or Associate shall make a record that the customer declined, except that such a record need not be made in the case of a non-U.

Subject to the provisions of Section i of this Rule, a Member may open, introduce or agree to direct a futures trading account for a customer only upon the approval of a partner, officer, director, branch office manager or supervisory employee of the Member. Each Member shall keep copies of all records made pursuant to this Rule in the form and for the period of time set forth in CFTC Regulation 1. If the Member is an FCM or IB, the account must be approved or disapproved by a designated security futures principal.

The approval or disapproval shall be in writing and shall identify the person approving or disapproving the account. Additionally, the customer's account records shall contain information about the account, including the name of the Associate, how the customer's information was obtained, and the date that the disclosure statement for security futures products was provided. A copy of the background and financial information on file with the Member shall also be sent to each customer who is an individual for verification within fifteen days after the Member becomes aware of any material change in the customer's financial status.

In all cases, absent notice to the contrary from the customer, the information is deemed verified. For purposes of this requirement, a non-institutional customer is any customer who is not:. Notice must be received within 24 hours of such acceptance. For purposes of this Rule, wire transfers and certified checks shall be considered immediately available funds for which notice is not required. The written confirmation must include the new information and the effective date of the change but need not include any information that will remain the same. CTAs must provide the following information to clients with partially-funded accounts if the clients are not QEPs:.

The information that may be included in the Statement of Additional Information is described in subsection c. The Statement of Additional Information may be bound together with the Disclosure Document as long as the Disclosure Document comes first. If the Statement of Additional Information is separately bound, the CPO is not required to provide it to a prospective participant unless the prospective participant requests it.

If a Statement of Additional Information is prepared and separately distributed under paragraph 3 of this section, the cover page of the Disclosure Document required under paragraph 1 of this section shall state that the Statement of Additional Information is available free of charge and shall indicate how to obtain a copy of the Statement of Additional Information. For all other pools, Disclosure Documents required under subsection a 1 may include such information. Effective dates of amendments: December 1, ; November 30, ; February 13, ; October 25, ; April 1, ; October 18, ; October 1, ; January 4, ; March 29, ; March 31, and April 5, Forex Dealer Members and their Associates shall observe high standards of commercial honor and just and equitable principles of trade in the conduct of their forex business.

No Member may carry a forex account for, accept a forex order or account from, handle a forex transaction for or on behalf of, receive compensation directly or indirectly for forex transactions from, or pay compensation directly or indirectly for forex transactions to any non-Member of NFA, or suspended Member, that is required to be registered with the Commission as an FCM, RFED, IB, CPO, or CTA in connection with its forex activities and that is acting in respect to the account, order, or transaction for a forex customer, a forex pool or participant therein, a forex client of a commodity trading advisor, or any other person unless: 1 the non-Member is a member of another futures association registered under Section 17 of the Act or is exempted from this prohibition by Board resolution; or.

Each Forex Dealer Member shall diligently supervise its employees and agents in the conduct of their forex activities for or on behalf of the Forex Dealer Member. Each Associate of a Forex Dealer Member who has supervisory duties shall diligently exercise such duties in the conduct of that Associate's forex activities for or on behalf of the Forex Dealer Member.

This requirement may, in NFA's discretion, be waived upon a showing by the Forex Dealer Member that the Forex Dealer Member's current supervisory procedures provide effective supervision over its employees and agents. Within 30 days after a Forex Dealer Member submits a waiver request, the Compliance Department will submit a written response to the panel. The decision of the panel shall be final and shall be based upon the written submissions of the Forex Dealer Member and of the Compliance Department. The Compliance Director may require any Forex Dealer Member for any specified period to file copies of all promotional material with NFA for its review and approval at least 10 days prior to its first use or such shorter period as NFA may allow.

The Compliance Director may also require a Forex Dealer Member to file for review and approval copies of promotional material prepared or used by some or all of the non-Members it is responsible for under Section d. The Compliance Department may require any Forex Dealer Member for any specified period to file copies of all promotional material with NFA for its review and approval at least 10 days prior to its first use or such shorter period as NFA may allow.

The Compliance Department may also require a Forex Dealer Member to file for review and approval copies of promotional material prepared or used by some or all of the non-Members it is responsible for under Section d. Any Member who uses promotional material that includes a measurement or description or makes any reference to hypothetical forex transaction performance results that could have been achieved had a particular trading system of the Member or Associate been employed in the past must comply with Compliance Rule c and the related Interpretive Notice as if the performance results were for transactions in on-exchange futures contracts.

The annual report must include a certification by the Forex Dealer Member's CCO or chief executive officer that to the best of his or her knowledge and reasonable belief, and under penalty of law, the information contained in the annual report is accurate and complete. For an active customer who is an individual, the Member acting as the counterparty to the customer shall contact the customer, at least annually, to verify that the information obtained from the customer under paragraph 3 remains materially accurate, and provide the customer with an opportunity to correct and complete the information.

Whenever the customer notifies the Member acting as the counterparty to the customer of any material changes to the information, a determination must be made as to whether additional risk disclosure is required to be provided to the customer based on the changed information. In some cases, this may be the Member introducing or controlling the account; in other cases, it may be the Member acting as the counterparty to the customer account.

However, if the account is introduced or managed by a non-NFA Member, it shall be the sole responsibility of the Member acting as a counterparty to the transaction to comply with this rule. If a customer declines to provide the information set forth in paragraph 3 , the Member or Associate shall make a record that the customer declined, except that such a record need not be made in the case of a non-U.

Each Forex Dealer Member must make the following information readily available on its website and update such information as is necessary, but no less frequently than on an annual basis:. If any of the financial information required under iv - vii is amended, the Forex Dealer Member must clearly notate that it has been amended. Provided, however, that an FDM only has to provide transaction data pursuant to this subsection for any transactions that occur within 15 minutes before and after the execution of the customer's transaction. Each Forex Dealer Member shall: 1 Disclose the following, if applicable, to each customer on a per-trade basis in the same currency as the base currency of the account on the customer transaction confirmation statement: i Commission and any other fees;.

Transactions entered into through a Member to hedge currency exposure from positions on regulated exchanges are exempt from all forex requirements except sections b and c of this rule if the on-exchange transactions are handled by the same Member. For purposes of this rule: 1 "Affiliate" means any person that controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with the Forex Dealer Member;. This rule applies to Members registered as broker-dealers under Section 15 b 11 of the Exchange Act and their Associates.

The report must be filed with NFA, in the form NFA requires, by the 15th day of the month following the calendar quarter in which the complaints are received. A Member is not required to file a quarterly report for any quarter in which no complaints were received. Effective date of Amendments: October 18, ; September 30, and July 1, The plan shall be reasonably designed to enable the Member to continue operating, to reestablish operations, or to transfer its business to another Member with minimal disruption to its customers, other Members, and the commodity futures markets.

These individuals must be authorized to make key decisions in the event of an emergency. Effective dates of amendments: February 13, ; June 5, ; September 21, ; October 25, ; April 1, ; October 18, ; October 1, ; and September 19, A Forex Dealer Member or an IB may not enter into a bulk assignment, transfer, or liquidation of forex positions or accounts unless the assignment, liquidation, or transfer complies with CFTC Regulation 5.

For purposes of this rule, the term "forex" has the same meaning as in Bylaw b and the term "customer" means a counterparty that is not eligible contract participant as defined in 1a 18 of the Act. Effective dates of amendments: June 12, ; September 11, and April 5, Such review and approval must be documented by a written record, must include any supporting documentation, and must be provided to NFA in the manner requested by NFA.

The notice may be included in a customer agreement. Forex Dealer Members may not carry offsetting positions in a customer account but must offset them on a first-in, first-out basis. At the customer's request, an FDM may offset same-size transactions even if there are older transactions of a different size but must offset the transaction against the oldest transaction of that size. No Member CPO may permit a commodity pool to use any means to make a direct or indirect loan or advance of pool assets to the CPO or any other affiliated person or entity; provided , however , that certain specified transactions set forth in the related Interpretive Notice entitled Prohibition of Loans by Commodity Pools to CPOs and Related Entities are not prohibited by this rule.

Effective date of amendments: March 30, ; September 30, ; and June 30, The report must contain the data and be in the format prescribed by NFA.

Foreign exchange market

Each Forex Dealer Member must prepare the report as of P. Eastern time and file it with NFA by P. Eastern time the same day. Payment and acceptance of the fee does not preclude NFA from filing a disciplinary action for failure to comply with the deadlines imposed in this rule. Effective dates of amendments: September 30, There is hereby established a Department of Compliance hereinafter "Compliance Department" , under the direction and control of a Director of Compliance hereinafter "Compliance Director" , which shall conduct audits and examinations, and shall investigate violations of NFA requirements, prepare reports and conduct prosecutions, as provided in this Part.

The Compliance Department shall commence investigations at the direction of the Commission; upon the discovery or receipt of information by NFA such as complaints from customers or Members that, in the Compliance Director's opinion, indicates a possible basis for finding that a violation has occurred; on the Compliance Director's own initiative. The Compliance Director shall have the authority to compel testimony, subpoena documents and require statements under oath from any Member, Associate or person connected therewith.

Neither the Compliance Director nor any employee or agent of the Compliance Department including persons hired on a contract basis to perform compliance duties may be a Member or Associate or have any connection, direct or indirect, with a Member or Associate, except as approved by the President.

Except with the President's approval, the Compliance Director and any employee of the Compliance Department shall not trade, directly or indirectly, any commodity interest. A commodity interest shall be defined as any commodity futures or commodity option contract traded on or subject to the rules of a contract market or linked exchange, or cash commodities traded on or subject to the rules of a board of trade which has been designated as a contract market.

The Compliance Department shall commence investigations at the direction of the Commission; upon the discovery or receipt of information by NFA such as complaints from customers or Members that, in the Compliance Department's opinion, indicates a possible basis for finding that a violation has occurred; on the Compliance Department's own initiative.

The Compliance Department shall have the authority to compel testimony, subpoena documents and require statements under oath from any Member, Associate or person connected therewith. For purposes of this Rule b , a commodity interest shall be defined as any commodity futures or commodity option contract traded on or subject to the rules of a contract market or linked exchange, or cash commodities traded on or subject to the rules of a board of trade which has been designated as a contract market. In each case in which the Compliance Director has reason to believe that any NFA requirement is being, has been or is about to be violated, the Compliance Director shall submit a written report of the matter to the Business Conduct Committee.

See NFA Bylaw The report shall include:. If upon completing the investigation the Compliance Director concludes that there is no reason to believe that an NFA requirement is being, has been or is about to be violated, the Compliance Director shall submit a report to the Business Conduct Committee, containing the information specified in paragraph a above and, if applicable, recommending whether the Business Conduct Committee should issue or authorize the Compliance Director to issue a warning letter.

The report, and any warning letter issued, shall become part of the investigation file, which may thereafter be closed as the Compliance Director deems appropriate. Investigations shall be completed within four months of commencement except for good cause. Each investigation report shall be reviewed by the Business Conduct Committee.

If, upon review of the report, the Business Conduct Committee finds that additional investigation or evidence is necessary, it shall so instruct the Compliance Director. This requires that your data is transposed as described above. Use these values to calculate a weighted avaerage density of the age of red snapper. A weighted average, on the other hand, considers one or more numbers in the range to be worth more or have a greater weight than the other numbers.

The blankets are segmented into pockets to keep the beads evenly distributed around your body. Im trying to find the weighted average of the five test grades for each course and store it in the same array. This post explains how to calculate weighted and non-weighted zonal statistics on variables over different dimensions e.

A weighted pipeline is designed to give you a high-level impression of your sales opportunities. To view the details in each table click the table name in the first column. Weighted products help to enhance sensory integration, focus, and attention. If measuring the average price of foodstuffs you could take a list of products available and then calculate the average.

Then, write each number's weight next to it, which is typically represented as a percentage. The Restarting Every option is just overriding Tableau's automatic partitioning with your choice of partition. Groups can not be used on Calculated Fields. Another example of using the weighted average formula is when a company has a wide fluctuation in sales, perhaps due to producing a seasonal product. The weighted average method A method of process costing that includes costs in beginning inventory and current period costs to establish an average cost per unit.

I scanned the community and there are many questions on weighted average but I cant seem to figure out my issue. It give the same weight to every closing price. My anxiety causes Lots of sleeping Issues. In the example the total is at Year and Grand Total level. Tableau: Average by Dimension. It would be nice to be able to do ds. The modified box dimension on the weighted hierarchical graph is studied. Overall, the choice between Tableau and Power BI is a contentious one. Because it is not economical to count the number of employees each day and then find an average, companies will look at the beginning number of employees and the ending number of employees for the In conjunction with this announcement, Tableau will host a conference call at p.

Return on equity measures a corporation's profitability by calculating the amount of [NetIncCmn] returned as a percentage of [EquityAvg]. Calculated fields can be used to create new dimensions such as segments, or new measures such as ratios. A weighted blanket can be a substantial investment and, like you, we want your investment to last a long time. You can always measure across your bed to see how it would lay. Tableau offers explicit explanation also to all the functions that can be used.

I received an e-mail inquiry about weighted data recently and realized that while I cover this in my survey data class I had not yet posted anything about it here. In the rows shelf, I will have the Team and then the customer size. The corresponding Tableau packaged workbook, Weighted Average Calculation. An introduction to calculated fields in Tableau. There is a bit of misconception about how Tableau calculates average numbers. Different weightages have been assigned to these parameters and quantified their market impacts using the weighted average analysis to derive the market growth rate.

Currently, the 'show all sub-totals" aggregation of 'average' is a simple average, which doesn't work here it needs to be a weighted average. It has a 4. I have changed it to a weighted average by year by including population stats for each country for each year. Median is in quotes because this is not a true median, it is more like a weighted average. Save and store your visualizations on your Tableau Public profile. Tutorial Aggregating Data using Weighted Averages in Analytic Views; Description Weighted averages are often needed to correctly aggregate average in aggregate levels of a hierarchy.

Below are two examples of MDX statements that can be used in Tableau to calculate weighted averages. It's particularly powerful where you have a number of good alternatives to choose from, and many different factors to take into account. The resulting calculated field will generate a brand new value on the fly. Parameters are values that you can use in things like bins, calculations, filters, and reference lines. Tableau makes it easy to add parameters. Average calculator Weighted average calculation. Using the stacking method histogram causes a click on a bar to be interpreted by Tableau as a click on a single segment.

Tableau Set is a custom filed used to hold the subset of a data based on some condition. Ask Question 0. Meaning, given an average value based on N numbers, could I simply average in a new number by giving the current average a weight of N and the new number a weight of 1? Determining the average number of employees examines the number of workers you have during a certain period of time. Coloring by the mean weighted value produces plots like this matplotlib already handles this : In today's post, we'll explore how to capture data using the Likert question type and how the weighted average calculation works.

The model predicts that pricing drops after Tableau reports earnings. So this got me thinking about weighted averages. The weighted average x is equal to the sum of the product of the weight w i times the data number x i divided by the sum of the weights: Example. Though this calculation requires holding on to more data, when forecasting sales or budget expenses, This is why the Volume-Weighted Moving Average VWMA is a great choice for new traders.

The key is to notice that it depends on what the weights mean. Therefore, how could you calculate the weighted average in a pivot table? Tableau 10—the popular analytics and visualization tool—provides you with the ability to create powerful calculations.

This look cool and promising Jonathan! If working with an OT, please consult with them on size and weight. I want to add a sub total so that on a per team basis, I know what their overall conversion rate per product. Charts for the mean and for the variability can be produced. The main advantage of this approach is The Volume-Weighted Moving Average offers an additional dimension by using volume in addition to price. An analysis, such as AVG Sales by State includes the dimension that you are slicing the dicing the measure by as well as the aggregation of the measure. YnM offers blankets of different weight and size options.

WPI has a strong Tableau implementation, a thoughtful User Group, and a robust Tableau Enterprise Server used as a secure location to share data and analysis across the university. Step 1: Calculating the Weighted Average The weighted average of the results is calculated by factoring in the sample size with the rate of affirmative answers. Because the products are so similar, a majority of decisions will be made on the following factors: Deal Breaker 1: Cost.

In one of the previous articles, we discussed three essential functions for calculating average in Excel, which are very straightforward and easy-to-use. Motion charts show data using the X and Y-axes, displaying changes over time by showing the movement of data points within the defined space as well as changes in the color of the lines.

The weighted average of the results is calculated by factoring in the sample size with the rate of affirmative answers. Now that I have described how to add node attributes to network figures, I will introduce how to add edge values or edge weights to your network.

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What size should I buy? What weight should I get? How do I buy for my child? Are these even washable? We will answer all these questions and more in our buying guide Trilinear interpolation - Surveys the 8 nearest pixels occurring along the x, y, and z dimensions, creates a weighted average based on the nearness and brightness of the surveyed pixels and assigns that value to the pixel in the output image. In fact the simplest box plot in Tableau takes only 4 clicks. Time to remedy that. Each shifting month period generates a new average. However, I believe it gives you far more information than a true median and, therefore, is worth pursuing.

The good news is that it is not at all difficult to work with weighted survey data in Tableau. Sets — Create a custom field based on existing dimensions that can be used to encode the view with multiple dimension members across varying dimension levels. Thanks, —Shawn For most people, school or university grades are where they're most likely to encounter the weighted score or weighted average. Currently I have the averages without any weight and it prints to the console. Slim, powerful and easy to use. Cost varies depending on Udemy discounts, which are frequent.

How can I add the weighted average as a reference line? You have computed the moving average for sales for all months by using the quick table calculation functions in Tableau, but would now like to extend it so that you can choose how many periods you want to average. Robb gives his reasons for choosing the Box-and-Whisker plot and then walks you through the process of creating one and adding it to an interactive dashboard which you can see at the end of the post. For example, if you are analyzing the monthly sales for several products, you may want to include a reference line at the average sales mark so you can see how each product performed against the average.